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Bernard Malamud The Assistant, Saul Bellow Seize the Day and Flannery O’Connor The Violent Bear it away


2.1 Nicolai Hartmann

The notion of value is one people of all civilisations have always uttered their opinion about. The Britannica writes about the notion of value that it „deals with a notion of the valuable or the good but also the beautiful and the the true“. Although antique philosophers like Plato or Aristotle thought about the notion of the good, only from the 19th century on values have been considered to be one of the great philosophical topics. Nicolai Hartmann was one of the most important philosophers who tried to structure the notion of values in his work Die Ethik and so his work can be seen as a base for the whole discussion about values, the good and the evil and many other aspects which belong to this topic. Hartmann was born in Riga, Lithuania, in 1882, studied in St. Petersburg, Dorpat and Marburg where he attends Hermann Cohen’s and Paul Natrop’s neo-kantien courses. From 1920 to 1925 he becomes professor in Marburg, from 1925 to 1932 in Cologne, from 1931 to 1945 in Berlin and from 1945 on he lectures in Göttingen until he dies in 1950.
Nicolai Hartmann writes many important philosophical texts. One of them is The Principle of a Metaphysic of Knowledge in which he brakes with Kant’s criticism and founds a critical ontology. Hartmann affirm that there objectively exists real communication between man and beings. The beings shows us there appearence and the people open themselves towards the beings by the act of knowing.
Another one is The Ontology, which structures the world into two spheres and comes finally to the end that the spiritual reality lives within the persons, but there is neither God nor finality in nature as well as in history. 
Finally Die Ethik is the theoretical attempt to classify values. Values are different and can be put in a certain order according to their importance. When being confronted with them we are led to a virtuous life, the good and well-being. The human personality becomes a supreme value.



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